Three Character Classic
(三字经) 4/5

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【Simplified】经子通,读诸史。考世系,知终始。
【Traditional】經子通,讀諸史。考世系,知終始。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin jing1 zi5 tong1, du2 zhu1 shi3, kao3 shi4 xi4, zhi1 zhong1 shi3
【Cantonese】 Cantonese ging1 zi2 tung1, duk6 zyu1 si2, haau2 sai3 hai6, zi1 zung1 ci2
【English】
When the Classics and the Philosophers are mastered,
the various histories should be read,
and the genealogical connections should be examined,
so that the end of one dynasty and the beginning of the next may be known.

【Simplified】自羲农,至黄帝。号三皇,居上世。
【Traditional】自羲農,至黃帝。號三皇,居上世。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin zi4 xi1 nong2, zhi4 huang2 di4, hao4 san1 huang2, ju1 shang4 shi4
【Cantonese】 Cantonese zi6 hei1 nung4, zi3 wong4 dai3, hou6 saam7 wong4, geoi1 soeng6 sai3
【English】
From Fu Xi and Shen Nong
on to the Yellow Emperor,
these are called the Three Rulers.
who lived in the early ages.

【Simplified】唐有虞,号二帝。相揖逊,称盛世。
【Traditional】唐有虞,號二帝。相揖遜,稱盛世。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin tang2 you3 yu2, hao4 er4 di4, xiang1 yi1 xun4, cheng1 sheng4 shi4
【Cantonese】 Cantonese tong4 jau5 jyu4, hou6 ji6 dai3, soeng1 jap1 seon3, cing1 sing6 sai3
【English】
Tang and You-Yu
are called the two emperors.
They adbicated, one after the other,
and theirs was called the Golden Age.

【Simplified】夏有禹,商有汤。周文武,称三王。
【Traditional】夏有禹,商有湯。周文武,稱三王。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin xia4 you2 yu3, shang1 you3 tang1, zhou1 wen2 wu3, cheng1 san1 wang2
【Cantonese】 Cantonese haa6 jau5 jyu5, soeng1 jau5 tong1, zau1 man4 mou5, cing1 saam7 wong4
【English】
The Xia dynasty has Yu;
the Shang dynasty has Tang;
the Zhou dynasty had Wen and Wu;
these are called the Three Kings

【Simplified】夏传子,家天下。四百载,迁夏社。
【Traditional】夏傳子,家天下。四百載,遷夏社。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin xia4 chuan2 zi5, jia1 tian1 xia4, si4 bai3 zai4, qian1 xia4 she4
【Cantonese】 Cantonese haa6 cyun4 zi2, gaa1 tin1 haa6, sei3 baak3 zoi2, cin1 haa6 se5
【English】
Under the Xia dynasty the throne was transmitted from father to son,
making a family possession of the empire.
After four hundred years,
the Imperial sacrifice passed from the House of Xia.

【Simplified】汤伐夏,国号商。六百载,至纣亡。
【Traditional】湯伐夏,國號商。六百載,至紂亡。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin tang1 fa2 xia4, guo2 hao4 shang1, liu4 bai3 zai4, zhi4 zhou4 wang2
【Cantonese】 Cantonese tong1 fat6 haa6, gwok3 hou6 soeng1, luk6 baak3 zoi2, zi3 zau6 mong4
【English】
Tang the completer destroyed the Xia Dynasty,
and the dynastic title became Shang.
The line lasted for six hundred years,
ending with Zhou Xin.

【Simplified】周武王,始诛纣。八百载,最长久。
【Traditional】周武王,始誅紂。八百載,最長久。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin zhou1 wu3 wang2, shi3 zhu1 zhou4, ba1 bai3 zai4, zui4 chang2 jiu3
【Cantonese】 Cantonese zau1 mou5 wong4, ci2 zyu1 zau6, baat3 baak3 zoi2, zeoi3 coeng4 gau2
【English】
King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty
finally slew Zhou Xin.
His own line lasted for eight hundred years;
the longest dynasty of all.

【Simplified】周辙东,王纲堕。逞干戈,尚游说。
【Traditional】周轍東,王綱墮。逞干戈,尚游說。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin zhou1 zhe2 dong1, wang2 gang1 duo4, cheng3 gan1 ge1, shang4 you2 shuo1
【Cantonese】 Cantonese zau1 cit3 dung1, wong4 gong1 do6, cing2 gon1 gwo1, soeng6 jau4 seoi3
【English】
When the Zhous made tracks eastwards,
the feudal bond was slackened;
the arbitrament of spear and shields prevailed;
and peripatetic politicians were held in high esteem.

【Simplified】始春秋,终战国。五霸强,七雄出。
【Traditional】始春秋,終戰國。五霸強,七雄出。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin shi3 chun1 qiu1, zhong1 zhan4 guo2, wu3 ba4 qiang2, qi1 xiong2 chu1
【Cantonese】 Cantonese ci2 ceon1 cau1, zung1 zin3 gwok3, ng5 baa3 koeng4, cat1 hung4 ceot1
【English】
This period began with the Spring and Autumn Epoch,
and ended with that of the Warring States.
Next, the Five Chieftains domineered,
and the Seven Martial States came to the front.

【Simplified】嬴秦氏,始兼并。传二世,楚汉争。
【Traditional】嬴秦氏,始兼並。傳二世,楚漢爭。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin ying2 qin2 shi4, shi3 jian1 bing4, chuan2 er4 shi4, chu5 han4 zheng1
【Cantonese】 Cantonese jing4 ceon4 si6, ci2 gim1 bing3, cyun4 ji6 sai3, co2 hon3 zang1
【English】
Then the House of Qin, descended from the Ying clan,
finally united all the states under one sway.
The thrown was transmitted to Er Shi,
upon which followed the struggle between the Chu and the Han States.

【Simplified】高祖兴,汉业建。至孝平,王莽篡。
【Traditional】高祖興,漢業建。至孝平,王莽篡。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin gao1 zu3 xing1, han4 ye4 jian4, zhi4 xiao4 ping2, wang2 mang3 cuan4
【Cantonese】 Cantonese gou1 zou2 hing1, hon3 jip6 gin3, zi3 haau3 ping4, wong4 mong5 saan3
【English】
Then Gao Zu arose,
and the House of Han was established.
When we come to the reign of Xiao Ping,
Wang Mang usurped the throne.

【Simplified】光武兴,为东汉。四百年,终于献。
【Traditional】光武興,為東漢。四百年,終於獻。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin guang1 wu3 xing4, wei2 dong1 han4, si4 bai3 nian2, zhong1 yu2 xian4
【Cantonese】 Cantonese gwong1 mou5 hing1, wai4 dung1 hon3, sei3 baak3 nin4, zung1 jyu1 hin3
【English】
Then Guang Wu arose,
and founded the Eastern Han dynasty.
It lasted four hundred years,
and ended with the Emperor Xian.

【Simplified】魏蜀吴,争汉鼎。号三国,迄两晋。
【Traditional】魏蜀吳,爭漢鼎。號三國,迄兩晉。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin wei4 shu3 wu2, zheng1 han4 ding3, hao4 san1 guo2, qi4 liang3 jin4
【Cantonese】 Cantonese ngai6 suk6 ng4, zang1 hon3 ding2, hou6 saam1 gwok3, ngat6 loeng5 zeon3
【English】
Wei, Shu and Wu,
fought for the sovereignty of the Hans.
They were called the Three Kingdoms,
and existed until the Two Jin Dynasties.

【Simplified】宋齐继,梁陈承。为南朝,都金陵。
【Traditional】宋齊繼,梁陳承。為南朝,都金陵。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin song4 qi2 ji4, liang2 chen2 cheng2, wei2 nan2 chao2, du1 jin1 ling2
【Cantonese】 Cantonese sung3 cai4 gai3, loeng4 can4 sing4, wai4 naam4 ciu4, dou1 gam1 ling4
【English】
Then followed the Song and the Qi dynasties,
and after them the Liang and Chen dynasties.
These are the Southern dynasties,
with their capital at Nanjing.

【Simplified】北元魏,分东西。宇文周,兴高齐。
【Traditional】北元魏,分東西。宇文周,興高齊。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin bei3 yuan2 wei4, fen1 dong1 xi1, yu3 wen2 zhou1, xing4 gao1 qi2
【Cantonese】 Cantonese bak1 jyun4 ngai6, fan1 dung1 sai1, jyu5 man4 zau1, hing1 gou1 cai4
【English】
The northern dynasties are the Wei dynasty of the Yuan family,
which split into Eastern and Western We,.
the Zhou dynasty of the Yuwen family,
with the Qi dynasty of the Gao family.

【Simplified】迨至隋,一土宇。不再传,失统绪。
【Traditional】迨至隋,一土宇。不再傳,失統緒。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin dai4 zhi4 sui2, yi1 tu2 yu3, bu2 zai4 chuan2, shi1 tong3 xu4
【Cantonese】 Cantonese doi6 zi3 ceoi4, jat1 tou2 jyu5, bat1 zoi3 cyun4, sat1 tung2 seoi5
【English】
At length, under the Sui dynasty,
the empire was united under one ruler.
The throne was not transmitted twice,
succession to power being lost.

【Simplified】唐高祖,起义师。除隋乱,创国基。
【Traditional】唐高祖,起義師。除隋亂,創國基。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin tang2 gao1 zu3, qi3 yi4 shi1, chu2 sui2 luan4, chuang4 guo2 ji1
【Cantonese】 Cantonese tong4 gou1 zou2, hei2 ji6 si1, ceoi4 ceoi4 lyun6, cong3 gwok3 gei1
【English】
The first emperor of the Tang dynasty
raised volunteer troops.
He put an end to the disorder of the House of Sui,
and established the foundations of his line.

【Simplified】二十传,三百载。梁灭之,国乃改。
【Traditional】二十傳,三百載。梁滅之,國乃改。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin er4 shi2 chuan2, san1 bai3 zai3, liang2 mie4 zhi1, guo2 nai2 gai3
【Cantonese】 Cantonese ji6 sap6 cyun4, saam1 baak3 zoi2, loeng4 mit6 zi1, gwok3 naai5 goi2
【English】
Twenty times the thrown was transmitted
in a period of three hundred years.
The Liang State destroyed it,
and the dynastic title was changed.

【Simplified】梁唐晋,及汉周。称五代,皆有由。
【Traditional】梁唐晉,及漢周。稱五代,皆有由。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin liang2 tang2 jin4, ji2 han4 zhou1, cheng1 wu3 dai4, jie1 you3 you2
【Cantonese】 Cantonese loeng4 tong4 zeon3, kap6 hon3 zau1, cing1 ng5 doi6, gaai1 jau5 jau4
【English】
The Liang, the Tang, the Jin,
the Han, and the Zhou,
are called the Five Dynasties,
and there was a reason for the establishment of each.

【Simplified】炎宋兴,受周禅。十八传,南北混。
【Traditional】炎宋興,受周禪。十八傳,南北混。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin yan2 song4 xing1, shou4 zhou1 chan2, shi2 ba1 chuan2, nan2 bei3 hun4
【Cantonese】 Cantonese jim4 sung3 hing1, sau6 zau1 sim4, sap6 baat3 cyun4, naam4 bak1 wan6
【English】
Then the fire-led house of Song arose,
and received the resignation of the house of Zhou.
Eighteen times the throne was transmitted,
and then the north and the south were reunited.

【Simplified】十七史,全在兹。载治乱,知兴衰。
【Traditional】十七史,全在茲。載治亂,知興衰。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin shi2 qi1 shi3, quan2 zai4 zi1, zai4 zhi4 luan4, zhi1 xing1 shuai1
【Cantonese】 Cantonese sap6 cat1 si2, cyun4 zoi6 zi1, zoi3 zi6 lyun6, zi1 hing1 seoi1
【English】
The Seventeen Dynastic Histories
are all embraced in the above.
They contain examples of good and bad government,
whence may be learnt the principles of prosperity and decay.

【Simplified】读史书,考实录。通古今,若亲目。
【Traditional】讀史書,考實錄。通古今,若親目。
【Mandarin】 Mandarin du2 shi3 shu1, kao3 shi2 lu4, tong1 gu3 jin1, ruo4 qin1 mu4
【Cantonese】 Cantonese duk6 si2 syu1, haau2 sat6 luk6, tung1 gu2 gam1, joek6 can1 muk6
【English】
Ye who read history
must study the State Annals,
whereby you will understand ancient and modern events,
as though having seen them with your own eyes.

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